Cover Image

The revolution in Microscopy - Simple to electron

Amal Kumar Mondal, Sanjukta Mondal Parui


Single cell to multiple cells, simple morphology to ultrastructural studies, Biological sciences to Nano Sciences and to some extent medical sciences, has fully or partly depended on Microscopic studies. Without Leeuwenkoek’s discovery we can’t imagine our latest development in Research. Finally, in 21st Centuary latest discovery i.e. foldscope microscopy with low cost, easily handle for our tiny school to field scientists.


Revolution, Microscopy, Simple, Bright Field Microscopy (BFM), Dark Field Microscopy (DFM), Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM), Fluorescence Microscopy (FM), Polarized Light Microscope (PLM), SEM, TEM, Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM) and Foldscope

Full Text:



Antoni van Leeuwenhoek; Samuel Hoole (1800). The Select Works of Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Containing His Microscopical Discoveries in Many of the Works of Nature.

Anderson, Douglas. Tiny Microscopes. Lens on Leeuwenhoek. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2016.

Dobell, Clifford (1923). “A Protozoological Bicentenary: Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) and Louis Joblot (1645–1723)”. Parasitology. 15: 308–19.

F. N. Egerton (1967). Leeuwenhoek as a founder of animal demography. Journal of the History of Biology. 1: 1–22.

Mesler, Bill; Cleaves, H. James (7 December 2015). A Brief History of Creation: Science and the Search for the Origin of Life. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-393-24854-8.

Robert Hooke (1635–1703). Retrieved 13 June 2010.

Cybulski JS, Clements J, Prakash M (2014). Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope. PLOS ONE. 9 (6): e98781.

A Microscope to Save the World. The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-12-22.

Coxworth, Ben (11 March 2014). Folding paper microscope could reduce deaths from malaria. Gizmag. Retrieved 13 March 2014.

Mathews, Lee (11 March 2014). Foldscope is a 50-cent paper microscope that magnifies up to 2000 times. Retrieved 13 March 2014.

Mukunth, Vasudev (12 March 2014). A disposable microscope for as little as $1. The Hindu. Retrieved 13, March 2014.

Wakefield, Jane (11 March 2014). Ultra-cheap 'origami' microscope developed. BBC News. Retrieved 13 March 2014.

Newby, Kris (13 March 2014). Free DIY microscope kits to citizen scientists with inspiring project ideas". Scope. Retrieved 13 March 2014.

Foldscope paper microscope can diagnose malaria, costs 50 cent. CBC News. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.

Origami microscopes for college students across India - Nature India. Nature India. 2015.133.


Copyright (c) 2018 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.