Cover Image

Assessment of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi of Glyphochloa santapaui: Vulnerable and endemic grass species of Maharashtra, India.

Vishal Ramchandra Kamble, Meghana M. Kolekar, Sonali S. Lanjekar, Yadvendradatta R. Yadav


Glyphochloa santapaui (S.K. Jain & Deshp.) Clayton santapaui is endemic to Maharashtra state restricted to Ferricrete-Lateritic rocky plateaus at Sindhudurg and Ratnagiri district. Due to ongoing anthropogenic threats this species is rated as Vulnerable under IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and hence attention is needed toward its conservation.The lateritic plant-soil interactions in different taxa is dependent to their microbial or mycorrhizal associates. So far endemic grass species - Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations on Lateritic rocky plateaus are poorly investigated. In present paper critical assessment of AM fungal colonization in roots of vulnerable- endemic grass Glyphochloa santapaui is interpreted. Overall colonization percentage was 71.80%. Moreover, root segments of some samples were commonly co-colonized by dark septate hyphae (dsh) of other fungal endophytes (Ofe) and AM fungi. In present assessment, four Glomeromycota families viz., Acaulosporaceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae were recorded comprising 18 species under 6 genera. These AM fungal species are viz., Acaulospora elegans, A. rehmii, A. scrobiculataA. tuberculata,  A. appendiculaDiversispora epigaea; Gigaspora albida, G. gigantea, G. margarita, G. rosea; Scutellospora calospora S. dipurpusescrns; Glomus gerdemanni, G. hoi, G. occultum, G. versiforme, G. warcuppi and  Sclerocystis sinuosa.  On the basis of analysis of spore density and relative abundance, two dominanting species of AM fungi viz., Diversispora epigaea and Gigaspora gigantea were recognized.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi , AM fungi, Diversispora epigaea, Gigaspora gigantea, Glomeromycota, Glyphochloa santapaui, vulnerable- endemic grass

Full Text:



Arora DK. Handbook of Applied Mycology. Vol. 1: Soil and Plants. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1991, 1-736.

Barrow JE and Roncaderi WR. Mycorrhizal benefit survival and growth of sweet gram in the nursery. J. Appl. Forest, 1977, 1, 21-23.

Barrow JR and Aaltonen RE. Evaluation of the internal colonization of Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. roots by dark septate fungi and the influence of host physiological activity. Mycorrhiza, 2001. 11, 199–205.

Brundrett MC and Kendrick WB. A developmental study of early stages in vesicular arbuscularmycorrhiza formation. Canadian Journal of Botany, 1996, 66, 184-194.

D`Souza J, Fonseca MA. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) Fungal Status in Endemic Genus Glyphochloa. The Journal of Biodiversity. Photon, 2015, 115, 461-464.

Dandan Z and Zhiwei Z. Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the hotdry valley of the Jinsha River, southwest China. Appl. Soil Ecol., 2007, 37, 118–128.

Fonseca MA Systematic studies on the genus Glyphochloa W D Clayton. PhD Thesis. 2003. Goa University.

Garcia IV, Mendoza RE. Relationships among soil properties, plant nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plant symbioses in a temperate grassland along hydrologic, saline and sodic gradients. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 2008. 63:359–371.

Gaur A and Adholeya A. Estimation of VAMF spores in soil: a modified method, Mycorrhiza News, 6, 1994. 10-11.

Gerdemann JW, and Nicolson TH. Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 1963, 46, 235-244.

Gosavi KVC, Yadav SR, Karanth KP, and Surveswaran S. Molecular phylogeny of Glyphochloa (Poaceae, Panicoideae), an endemic grass genus from the Western Ghats, India. J. Syst. Evol. 9999 (9999): 1–13, 2015. doi: 10.1111/jse.12185.

Grime JP, Mackey JML, Hillier SH and Read DJ. Floristic diversity in a model system using experimental microcosms. Nature, 1987, 328, 420-422.

Hall IR and Fish BJ. A key to the Endogonaceae. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 1979, 73, 261-270.

Hall IR. Growth of Lotus pedunculatus Cav. in an eroded soil containing soil pellets infected with endmycorrhizal fungi N. Z. J. Agri. Res., 1980, 23, 103-105.

Hingsinger P, Plassard C, Tang C, and Jaillard, B. Origins of root mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: A review. Plant and Soil 2003, 248, 43-59.

Horton TR, Ca´zares E and Bruns TD. Ectomycorrhizal, vesicular–arbuscular and dark septate fungal colonization of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) seedlings in the first 5 months of growth after wildfire. Mycorrhiza, 1998, 8, 11–18.

Irwin SJ and Narasimhan D. Endemic genera of angiosperms in India: A review. Rheedea, 2011, 21: 87–105.

Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis, Prentice Hall of Indian Private Limited, New Delhi. 1967.1-498.

Jalonen R, Timonen S, Sierra J and Nygren P. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses in a cut-and-carry forage production system of legume tree Gliricidia sepium and fodder grass Dichanthium aristatum Agroforest Syst 2013, 87:319–330. DOI 10.1007/s10457-012-9553-1.

Jones DL, Dennis, PG, Owen AG, and van Hees PAW. Organic acid behaviour in soils- misconceptions and knowledge gaps. Plant and Soil 2003, 248, 31-41.

Jumpponen A and Trappe JM. Dark septate endophytes: a review of facultative biotrophic root-colonizing fungi. New Phytol. 1998. 140, 295–310.

Jumpponen A. Dark septate endophytes – are they mycorrhizal? Mycorrhiza 2001. 11, 207–211.

Lambers H, Chapin III FS and Pons TL. Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1998, 1-605.

Morton JB. Taxonomy of mycorrhizal fungi: classification, nomenclature, and identification. Mycotaxon. 1988, 32, 267 –324.

Murakoshi T, Tojo M, Walker C and Saito M. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on adjacent semi-natural grasslands with different vegetation in Japan Mycoscience, 1998, 39, 455-462.

Muthukumar T and Udaiyan K. Seasonality of vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizae in sedges in a semi-arid tropical grassland. Acta Oecologica, 2002. 23, 337–347.

Olsen SR, Cole CV, Cole FS, Watanabe and LA Dean. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circ. No. 939. U.S. Dept. Agric. Washington, D.C. 1954, 1-19.

Pacioni G. Wet - sieving and decanting technique for the extraction of spores of vesicular arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi, Meth. Microbiol, 1992, 22, 317-322.

Phillips JM and Hayman DS. Improved procedure for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection, Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 1970. 55, 158 – 161.

Piper CS Soil and Plant Analysis, Hans Publishers, Bombay. 1966. 1-368.

Rains KC, Nadkarni NM and Bledsoe CS. Epiphytic and terrestrial mycorrhizas in a lower montane Costa Rican cloud forest. Mycorrhiza, 2003 13, 257–264.

Rawat, GS, Desai A, Somanathan H and Wikramanayake ED. Malabar Coast moist forests (IM0124). Available at: 2001.

Ringwall KD and Dickinson ND. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Fungi Colonization in Native Grasses Rangelands 1997, 19(1), 15-18.

Roelofs R, Rengel Z, Cawthray GR, Dixon KW and Lambers H. Exudation of carboxylates in Australian Proteaceae: Chemical composition. Plant Cell and Envir, 2001, 24, 891-903.

Romand-Monnier F. Glyphochloa santapaui. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T44393261A44522418.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Electronic Plant Information Center [online]. Available from [accessed 16 March 2018].

Schenk NC and Perez Y. Manual for the identification of VA -Mycorrhizal fungi, third edition. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 1990.

Schultz PA, Miller RM, Jastrow JD, Rivetta CV and Bever JD. Evidence of mycorrhizal mechanism for the adaptation of Andropogon gerardii (Poaceae) to- High and - Low nutient Prairies. American journal of botany, 2001, 88(9),1650-1656.

Smith SE, Read DJ. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic Press, London 2008.

Smith SE, Read DJ. Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic, UK 2008.

Thorpe CJ and Watve A. Lateritic Plateaus in the Northern Western Ghats, India; a Review of Bauxite Mining Restoration Practices. Journal of Ecological Society. 2015, 28, 25-44.

Treseder KK, Allen MF. Direct nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a model and field test. New Phytol, 2002. 155: 507–515.

Van Reeuwijk LP. Procedures for soil analysis: Technical paper-9; International Soil Reference and Information Centre, P.O. Box 353, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands; 6th ed. 2002. 1-120.

Verboom WH, Galloway PD. National Landcare Program (Australia), and Natural Heritage Trust (Australia). Corrigin area land resources survey: Report 20. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Perth. 2004, 1-65.

Walkley A and Black IA. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci., 37, 1938. 29-37.


Copyright (c) 2018 Annals of Plant Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.